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Inventors Kit Experiment 4 Full Experiment

In this tutorial you will find Experiment 4 Using a Transistor to drive a Motor from the Kitronik Inventors Kit for the BBC microbit. We've included the entire experiment as a free example of the great practical experiments that are contained within the Inventors Kit. Learn how to build the circuit and how to code the micro:bit to control the circuit.

Experiment 4 Using a Transistor to drive a Motor-main-image-870

You can complete this experiment with or without the Inventors Kit. If you do not have the Kitronik Inventors Kit you will have to source all of the required components separately, a full list of the things you will need can be found below.

 

This Experiment Requires:

 

The Aims Of This Experiment Are:

  • To use a transistor to drive a fan motor.
  • To control the speed of the motor using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM).

 

Experiment 4 Video Walk Through:

 

Experiment 4 Using A Transistor To Drive A Motor:

The output pins on most microprocessors can only supply a small amount of current, not enough for a power hungry device such as a motor. The BBC micro:bit is no exception to this. A transistor can be used to solve this problem.

A transistor is like a gate for electricity, a small amount of current can be used to open the gate to let a lot of current flow through to power hungry components.

 

Creating The Code Using The Microsoft Block Editor:

Below is an example of how to write the code for the experiment in the Microsoft Block Editor.

inventors-kit-experinment-4-blocks-needed-1000

 

If you're having difficulty producing your own code for this experiment, we've created the code for you that you can download directly from the embedded editor above..

 

Building This Circuit On The Prototyping System:

It is possible to build this circuit using the Prototyping System for the BBC micro:bit and the components listed at the top of the page, you can follow the diagram below.

experiment-4-breadboard-870

Building This Circuit With Crocodile Leads:

experiment-4-pins-150

If you don't have the Kitronik Inventors Kit for the BBC micro:bit or the Prototyping System you can still build this circuit using the circuit diagram for reference and Crocodile Leads to join the components together. You can see an example of this in the picture below.

When connecting the Transistor it is important to correctly identify the Base, Collector and Emitter leads. These can be seen in the picture to the right. Care should also be taken when connecting the transistor to ensure that there are no shorts, you should bend the pins away from each other before you connect the crocodile leads.

experiment-4-crocodile-leads-870

Circuit Diagram:

experiment-4-circuit-diagram-870

 

What Will Happen:

The motor should after a few seconds start to spin slowly, then faster until it reaches a maximum speed. At this point, will slow down and stop and the cycle will begin again.

 

What's Going On (How Does It work)?:

If the transistor is turned on and off very quickly and it spends half its time on and half its time off then the fan motor will spin at half speed. By changing the percentage of the time that the transistor spends on (known as the duty cycle) the speed of the motor can be finely controlled. As the power pulses on and off and the width of the pulses are controlled, we call this process Pulse Width Modulation (PWM).

The code works in two stages. The first loop writes the duty value to Pin P0 then increases the duty value by one and writes the value to P0 again. This repeats until the value reaches the maximum of 1023 (full speed). The second loop then kicks in and reduces the duty by 1 and writes it to P0 until the value reaches 0 (stopped). This whole cycle is inside a forever loop so the motor will speed up and slow down forever. The PWM output varies the duty cycle of the output voltage, as show below, to vary the speed of the fan motor.

experiment-4-pulse-graph-870

 

Code Downloads:

The code examples below have been individually zipped and can be downloaded by clicking on your preferred option. Once unzipped you can either open the and edit the code in appropriate editor or place the HEX file onto your microbit*.

MakeCode Editor & Python Code Downloads:

 

Legacy Editors Code Downloads:

NOTE: The legacy editors will disappear at some undisclosed point in the future. The code can still be placed on a microbit and will run regardless but you won't be able to use an editor. When that happens, switch to using one of the currently supported editors. We've already made the switch as the new editors are better and more fully featured.

* - To place the unzipped HEX file onto your microbit, connect your microbit to your computer via USB and then open File Explorer (Windows). Your microbit should show up as a removable drive. Simply drag and drop your HEX file onto the microbit in file explorer and the file will be transferred. The power light on the back of the microbit will start to flash, once the flashing stops the microbit is ready to run your code.

 

 

Kitronik Inventors Kit Resources:

 

Exp No#. Experiment Name. Resource Type.
1 Say Hello to the BBC micro:bit. Further Help.
2 Pre V1.7 Using an LDR and analog inputs. Full Experiment + Further Help.
2 V1.7 Using a Light Sensor & analog inputs. Full Experiment + Further Help.
3 Dimming an LED using a potentiometer. Further Help.
4 Using a transistor to drive a motor. Full Experiment + Further Help.
5 Using the accelerometer to control motor speed. Further Help.
6 Setting the tone with a piezo buzzer. Further Help.
7 Wind Power. Full Experiment + Further Help.
8 Making a game using the compass. Further Help.
9 Capacitor charge circuit. Further Help.
10 Using an RGB LED. Further Help.
11 Making a pedestrian crossing. Full Experiment + Further Help.
12 Making a random dice. Full Experiment + Further Help.

 

Get The Kitronik Inventors Kit For The BBC microbit:

We do two versions of the Inventors Kit for the BBC micro:bit, with or without the BBC micro:bit included. Chose the option that is right for you from the links below.

Materials, Perspex. Plywood, Polypropylene
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7 thoughts on “Inventors Kit Experiment 4 Full Experiment”

  • Paul Raftery June 24, 2017 at 10:22 pm

    Hi,
    I've just purchased your inventors kit for the microbit and one of the first experiments I wanted to try was experiment 4 (using the motor + fan) as the temperature here in Bilbao is pretty hot at the moment. As I am learning python, I decided to download your python code to run the motor. Unfortunately your code didn't seem to work. I compared it to the block editor code and noticed that the python code is lacking the 10 ms delay. I added 'sleep(10)' to your micropython code and now it runs perfectly. Please could you update the code on your website.
    Good job with the kit.
    Thanks,
    Paul

    Reply
    • Mark Donnison July 5, 2017 at 12:27 pm

      Hi Paul, good spot. I'll update it as soon as is possible. Thanks again!

      Reply
  • Magnus Carlenäs February 15, 2018 at 9:38 pm

    Hi!
    I wonder if you have to use a PWM output to drive the fan or could I aswell use Digital write pin X to 1/0 ?

    I also have the motor board, I guess I could use the fan in the same way as I use a regular DC motor, could I use digital Write?

    I want to ask so I don´t damage the Micro:bit!

    Regards
    Magnus

    Reply
    • Mark Donnison February 19, 2018 at 10:20 am

      Hi Magnus, the fan is just a motor with an impeller fan blade. Although you could use a digital write to turn on a motor you wouldn't have any speed control, it would be either on or off.

      Reply
      • Magnus September 20, 2018 at 2:06 pm

        Hi again!
        Now I have tried to make a heat sensitive fan and it works very well: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iilfeimMDjM&feature=youtu.be

        I wonder though if there is a need for the transistor. Will the Microbit be damaged if I power it with P0 directly?

        I can get it spinning by connecting P0 to red and the black back to 0V and then make a program that starts when I digitaly write P0 to 1 and stop when P0 is set to 0. Like this: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qnF6cHEyTFc&feature=youtu.be

        The program: https://makecode.microbit.org/_f4cEvvMu1341

        Reply
        • Mark Donnison October 1, 2018 at 5:10 pm

          Hi Magnus, there is the potential to damage the micro:bit. That's not to say that you will damage the micro:bit every time but you risk having the micro:bit operate outside of the range that it should operate in. For example, using a microbit to deliver power to a servo; you might get away with it 20 times in a row, but if it fails on go 21 you still have a destroyed microbit. Better to play it safe.

          For more detailed powering information, check this out; https://tech.microbit.org/hardware/powersupply/

          Reply
  • James Batchelor July 23, 2018 at 2:56 pm

    Hi guys,

    One problem that you maybe storing up is that when you drive the motor via a transistor the motor, an inductive element, will produce a back emf.
    You can see this if you connect an led as a flywheel diode across the motor terminals. You can see a short flash of the led when you stop the motor. So I would suggest a 1N4001 or even a 1N4148 as a flywheel or overswing diode to protect the transistor.

    (Incidentally I crimped single connectors on the flying leads, simpler to insert than the screw terminals.)

    Reply
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